As with the concept of “robot” in relation to the classification of robots, there is no unambiguous common opinion, because of which in different publications, as well as Internet resources devoted to robotics, you can find a different classification of automated machines. This is due to the fact that as the development of the robotics industry develops,
the machines themselves are modified, their functional load is constantly increasing and a regular revision of their varieties is inevitable . At the moment, it is most expedient to subdivide all types of robots into groups according to three characteristics: the type of work or task being performed, the degree of mobility, and the type of control system. Let us consider each of them in detail.
Type of work performed.
On this basis, there are eight types of machines:
Industrial robots :
are designed to automate all kinds of technological operations (for example, welding, stamping, metalworking, assembly of finished products, etc.) in the production of any product. They are applied practically in all branches of industry (mechanical engineering, instrument making, petrochemical, metallurgical, nuclear, automobile, aviation, etc.).
Building robots can similarly automate a huge number of different operations performed in the process of repairing premises or building new facilities. Considering the world scale of construction and the steady growth of the world’s population, the robotization of construction is very relevant now.
Agricultural robots are designed to perform labor-intensive and monotonous processes in agriculture. Currently, intensive development of such robots is underway, and even there are examples of their use, for example, in Japan.
Transport robots are used, as follows from the name for automatic movement of goods, or autonomous control of various vehicles. Transport robots are self-propelled trucks, autopilots, etc.
Household robots. This type of robot is used in everyday life and offices. A striking example of a household automated machine is the robot vacuum cleaner that has gained a respectable popularity. To the domestic robots can also be attributed to communicative robots that provide the effect of the presence of remote from each other people, or are able to independently conduct a dialogue with a person, and, of course, a number of robotic toys designed for entertainment and educational purposes in the field of robotics. In the future, more functional systems are expected to appear that can perform online-casino more complicated household duties such as washing dishes, washing dirty laundry, preparing food, etc.
Combat (military) robots are designed to bring armed conflicts to a qualitatively new level and are designed to minimize direct human participation in combat operations with the aim of reducing or eliminating human losses altogether, as well as working in conditions that are incompatible with the capabilities of man for military purposes. The varieties of combat robots are the same as combat missions for military units: unmanned remote-controlled aircraft (helicopters) – scouts, underwater vehicles and surface ships, robot miners, robotic sappers, robotic patrols, robots for carrying military ammunition. Due to the complexity of the tasks assigned to them, modern combat robots are operated by the operator, but the development of fully autonomous combat robots with artificial intelligence capable of making decisions,
Before the security robots put to the task of protecting their territory or premises. In the simplest case, these robots perform patrolling of protected perimeters and, in case of fixation of penetration, malefactors signal this to duty operators. Recently, there is a tendency to equip robotic guards with non-lethal weapons.
Research robots :classification of robots , research robots are used to collect all kinds of information about the investigated objects, its processing and transfer to the operator. The objects can be the most diverse: the surface of the planets, underwater space, underground mines, caves, cavities of operated pipelines, contaminated terrain and other areas hard to reach for people.
Type of management.
There are three classes:
1. Operated by the operator.
Robots controlled by an operator are not capable of thinking, making decisions and even making their own calculations. In fact, it’s just remotely controlled machines. For this category of robots can be attributed copying movements of control robots (simple manipulators or robots of the android type), exoskeletons, robots controlled by man from the control panel.
Copying robots necessarily have a mastering body, similar to the executive (with a scale in size and effort), a system for transferring control signals and feedback signals, a means of mapping for the operator of the robot’s operation environment. As a result, the motion of the steering body, performed by the operator, is copied with a given scale by the executive body via servo systems.
Exoskeletons are anthropomorphic constructions that are usually attached to moving parts of the human body, and which copy their movements with simultaneous increase in the effort. Currently, active use of exoskeletons in medicine for the rehabilitation of people with spinal injuries and other ailments leading to the loss of the ability to move independently has begun. At the same time, experiments are underway to use exoskeletons for loading and unloading operations that require great effort.
Robots controlled from the control panel. With a similar principle, probably, everything is familiar – with the example of radio-controlled toy models. On the console – a system of keys or handles and means of displaying information. The movement of the robot is set by the person from the control panel through the system of actuators.
In semi-automatic robots, manual control is combined with automatic control. It is used when it is impossible to program all the necessary operations in advance, but it is either inexpedient or impossible to equip a robot with artificial intelligence. Semi-automatic refers to robots that perform a certain programmed set of actions, but there is a need for the operator to intervene to provide him with additional information (for example, by targeting, indicating the required sequence of actions, etc.).
Autonomous robots are, as the name implies, robots programmed for independent actions, without human intervention. These machines can be referred to as industrial robots engaged in the execution of a sequence of technological operations, as well as machines that have full-fledged artificial intelligence. The ultimate option of autonomous robots are androids or cyborgs, which are the heroes of many fantastic films. Obviously, it is this class of machines that is the apogee of the development of robotics and, in the case of mass distribution, will allow us to fully assume all our daily household concerns and simply be an indispensable assistant in any business.
The decision to go to modeling the nervous activity of living or artificial organisms with the aid of computer technology is not surprising. For scientists is important and the process of model building and results which can be achieved. Let is a primitive, but artificial intelligence created in virtual reality can suddenly lead to curious results, demonstrate the evolution of the modeled body.
Virtual worm learns quite real
A team of scientists from Novosibirsk, under the direction of Andrew Pal’yanova, set out to simulate in virtual reality the nervous system of the worm known as C. Elegans, or nematode. They recreated in 3D-models of muscular frame nematodes, echoing the shape of the biological system of the original worm and all connections of neurons. Almost every cell in the body has received its virtual counterpart.
that is classification of robots